AGA XQ0701 Report No. 9 Measurement of Gas by Multipath Ultrasonic Meters

AGA XQ0701 pdf

AGA XQ0701 pdf

AGA XQ0701 Report No. 9 Measurement of Gas by Multipath Ultrasonic Meters
American Gas Association
Edition:2nd
Published: 04/01/2007
Number of Pages:113
File Size: 1 file , 600 KB

This report is a performance based specification for multipath ultrasonic meters for gas flow measurement. It replaces the previous version that came out in June 1998 and reprinted in June 2000.
Keywords: aga measurement pdf, report 9, report #9, aga report no. 9 pdf, aga 9, report no. 9, ultrasonic meter, ultrasonic

Table of Contents AGA XQ0701 pdf Report No. 9 Measurement of Gas by Multipath Ultrasonic Meters
1. INTRODUCTION . 1
1.1 Scope 1
1.2 Principle of Measurement . 1
2. TERMINOLOGY, UNITS AND DEFINITIONS . 2
2.1 Terminology 2
2.2 Engineering Units 2
2.3 Definitions 3
3. OPERATING CONDITIONS 6
3.1 Gas Quality . 6
3.2 Pressures 6
3.3 Temperatures, Gas and Ambient . 6
3.4 Gas Flow Considerations 6
3.5 Upstream Piping and Flow Profiles . 7
3.6 Acoustic Noise . 7
4. METER REQUIREMENTS 9
4.1 Codes and Regulations 9
4.2 Quality Assurance . 9
4.3 Meter Body 9
4.3.1 Maximum Operating Pressure . 9
4.3.2 Corrosion Resistance . 9
4.3.3 Meter Body Lengths and Bores . 9
4.3.4 Ultrasonic Transducer Ports 10
4.3.5 Pressure Tap 10
4.3.6 Miscellaneous 10
4.3.7 Meter Body Markings 11
4.4 Ultrasonic Transducers . 11
4.4.1 Specifications 11
4.4.2 Rate of Pressure Change . 11
vii
4.4.3 Exchange .11
4.4.4 Transducer Tests 12
4.5 Electronics .12
4.5.1 General Requirements 12
4.5.2 Output Signal Specifications 12
4.5.3 Electrical Safety Design Requirements .13
4.5.4 Component Replacement 13
4.6 Computer Programs 13
4.6.1 Firmware .13
4.6.2 Configuration and Maintenance Software .14
4.6.3 Inspection and Auditing Functions .14
4.6.4 Alarms .14
4.6.5 Diagnostic Measurements .14
4.7 Documentation .15
4.7.1 After Receipt of Order 16
4.7.2 Before Shipment 16
5. METER PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS 17
5.1 General Meter Performance Requirements 17
5.1.1 Large Meter Accuracy 17
5.1.2 Small Meter Accuracy 18
5.2 Pressure, Temperature and Gas Composition Influences .19
6. INDIVIDUAL METER & METERING PACKAGE TESTING REQUIREMENTS 20
6.1 Leakage Tests 20
6.2 Dimensional Measurements .20
6.3 Zero-Flow Verification Test (Zero Test) .21
6.4 Meter and Metering Package Flow-Calibration Test .21
6.4.1 Preparation for Flow Calibration 22
6.4.2 Calibration of Metering Package 23
6.4.3 Calibration Adjustment Factors .23
6.4.4 Calibration Test Reports .23
6.4.5 Final Considerations 24
7. INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS . 25
7.1 Environmental Considerations 25
7.1.1 Temperature .25
7.1.2 Vibration .25
7.1.3 Electrical Noise 25
7.1.4 Pulsation 25
viii
7.2 Piping Configuration . 25
7.2.1 Flow Direction . 25
7.2.2 Piping Installations 25
7.2.3 Protrusions and Misalignments . 27
7.2.4 Internal Surface . 28
7.2.5 Thermowells and Sample Probes . 28
7.2.6 Flow Conditioners 28
7.2.7 Orientation of Meter 28
7.2.8 Filtration . 28
7.2.9 Meter Tube Ports . 29
7.3 Associated Flow Computer 29
7.3.1 Flow Computer Calculations . 29
7.4 Maintenance 30
8. FIELD VERIFICATION TESTS 31
9. ULTRASONIC METER MEASUREMENT UNCERTAINTY DETERMINATION 32
9.1 Types of Uncertainties 32
9.2 Meter Calibration Uncertainty 32
9.3 Uncertainties Arising From Differences Between the Field Installation and the Calibration Lab 32
9.3.1 Parallel Meter Runs . 32
9.3.2 Installation Effects 32
9.3.3 Pressure and Temperature Effects 33
9.3.4 Gas Quality Effects . 33
9.4 Uncertainties Due to Secondary Instrumentation . 33
9.5 Uncertainty Analysis Procedure 34
10. REFERENCE LIST 35
APPENDIX A: MULTIPATH ULTRASONIC METER FLOW-CLAIBRATION ISSUES . 39
A.1 Why Flow-Calibrate a Multipath Ultrasonic Meter? . 39
A.2 Methods for Correcting a UM’s Flow-Measurement Error 41
A.3 Example of a Flow-Weighted Mean Error (FWME) Calculation. 41
APPENDIX B: ELECTRONICS DESIGN TESTING 45
B.1 Static Temperature, Dry Heat 45
B.2 Static Temperature, Cold . 45
ix
B.3 Damp Heat, Steady State 45
B.4 Damp Heat, Cyclic 46
B.5 Random Vibration 46
B.6 Sinusoidal Vibration .46
B.7 Mechanical Shock 46
B.8 Power Voltage Variation 46
B.9 Short Time Power Reduction 46
B.10 Bursts (Transients) 47
B.11 Electrostatic Discharge 47
B.12 Electromagnetic Susceptibility 47
APPENDIX C: ULTRASONIC FLOW MEASUREMENT FOR NATURAL GAS
APPLICATIONS 49
C.1 Introduction .50
C.1.1 Task Group Scope 50
C.1.2 Engineering Technical Note Scope 50
C.2 Principle of Operation 51
C.2.1 Introduction .51
C.2.2 Theory of Ultrasonic Flow Measurement .52
C.3 Technical Issues 59
C.3.1 Speed of Sound in Natural Gas 59
C.3.2 Installation Requirements 64
C.3.3 Meter Construction .67
C.3.4 Performance Characteristics 68
C.3.5 Field Checks 70
C.4 Evaluation of Measurement Performance .71
C.4.1 Signal Amplitude72
C.4.2 Pulse Shape .72
C.4.3 Noise .73
C.4.4 Batch Diagnostics .74
C.4.5 Diagnostic Message Block Example .74
C.5 Error Analysis 77
C.5.1 Bias 77
C.5.2 Variance 79
C.6 Calibration .81
C.6.1 Dry Calibration .81
C.6.2 Flow Calibration .82
x
C.6.3 Calibration Facilities 82
C.6.4 Transducer Replacement 82
C.7 Recommendations 85
C.7.1 Industry 85
C.7.2 Users . 85
C.7.3 Manufacturers 85
C.7.4 Researchers . 85
TABLE C1: Ultrasonic Meter Research Literature 87
TABLE C2: Ultrasonic Meter Research Activities 89
Appendix C References . 90
APPENDIX D: FLOW METER AND/OR FLOW CONDITIONER PERFORMANCE
VERIFICATION TEST 91
APPENDIX E: EXAMPLES OF OVERALL MEASUREMENT UNCERTAINTY
CALCULATIONS – ULTRASONIC METER 93
E.1 General 93
E.2 The Mathematical Model 93
E.3 Contributory Variances 93
E.3.1 Uncertainty in the Uncorrected Volume Flowrate, Qf 93
E.3.2 Uncertainty in the Measurement of Pressure 94
E.3.3 Uncertainty in the Measurement of Temperature 94
E.3.4 Uncertainty in the Determination of Compressibility 94
E.4 Combined Uncertainty (percent). 95
E.5 Expanded Uncertainty 95
APPENDIX F: FORM FOR PROPOSALS ON AGA REPORT NO. 9 97

AGA XQ0701 Report No. 9 Measurement of Gas by Multipath Ultrasonic Meters Pdf :


Download PDF File



Tags :